GROFF_CHAR

NAME
DESCRIPTION
REFERENCE
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

NAME

groff_char - groff character names

DESCRIPTION

This manual page lists the standard groff input characters. The output characters in this document will look different depending on which output device was chosen (with option -T for the man(1) program or the roff formatter). Only the characters that are available for the device that is being used to print or view this manual page will be displayed (the device currently used is ’html’).

In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for direct input and named characters for further glyphs. On ASCII platforms, character codes in the range 0 to 127 (decimal) represent the usual 7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted as the corresponding characters in the Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1) code set. On EBCDIC platforms, only the code page cp1047 is supported (which contains the same characters as Latin-1). It is rather straightforward (for the experienced user) to set up other 8bit encodings like Latin-2; since groff will use Unicode in the next major version, no additional encodings are provided.

All roff systems provide the concept of named characters. In traditional roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff also provides support for longer names. It is strongly suggested that only named characters are used for all characters outside of the 7-bit ASCII range.

Some of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1) also produce single characters; these exist for historical reasons or are printable versions of syntactical characters. They include \\, \’, \’, \-, \., and \e; see groff(7).

In groff, all of these different types of characters can be tested positively with the .if c conditional.

REFERENCE

In this section, the characters in groff are specified in tabular form. The meaning of the columns is as follows.

Output

shows how the character is printed for the current device; although this can have quite a different shape on other devices, it always represents the same glyph.

Input name

specifies how the character is input either directly by a key on the keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

Input code

applies to characters which can be input with a single character, and gives the ISO Latin-1 decimal code of that input character. Note that this code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Unicode characters; (including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127).

PostScript name

gives the usual PostScript name of the output character.

ASCII Characters
These are the basic characters having 7-bit ASCII code values. These are identical to the first 127 characters of the character standards ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) and Unicode (range C0 Controls and Basic Latin). To save space, not every code has an entry in the following because the following code ranges are well known.

0-32

Control characters (print as themselves).

48-57

Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

65-90

Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

97-122

Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

127

Control character (prints as itself).

The remaining ranges constitute the printable, non-alphanumeric ASCII characters; only these are listed below. As can be seen in the table below, most of these characters print as themselves; the only exceptions are the following characters:

`

prints as ’,

'

prints as ’; the corresponding ISO Latin-1 characters can be obtained with \’ and \(aq.

-

the ISO Latin-1 ’Hyphen, Minus Sign’ (code 45) prints as a hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with \-.

~

the ISO Latin-1 ’Tilde’ (code 126); a larger glyph can be obtained with \(ti.

^

the ISO Latin-1 ’Circumflex Accent’ (code 94); a larger glyph can be obtained with \(ha.

Output Input Input PostScript Notes

name

code

name

!

!

33

exclam

"

"

34

quotedbl

#

#

35

numbersign

$

$

36

dollar

%

%

37

percent

&

&

38

ampersand

'

39

quoteright

(

(

40

parenleft

)

)

41

parenright

*

*

42

asterisk

+

+

43

plus

,

,

44

comma

-

-

45

hyphen

.

.

46

period

/

/

47

slash

:

:

58

colon

;

;

59

semicolon

<

<

60

less

=

=

61

equal

>

>

62

greater

?

?

63

question

@

@

64

at

[

[

91

bracketleft

\

\

92

backslash

]

]

93

bracketright

^

^

94

circumflex

circumflex accent

_

_

95

underscore

`

96

quoteleft

{

{

123

braceleft

|

|

124

bar

}

}

125

braceright

~

~

126

tilde

tilde accent

Latin-1 Special Characters
These characters have character codes between 128 and 255. They are interpreted as characters according to the Latin-1 (iso-8859-1) code set, being identical to the Unicode range C1 Controls and Latin-1 Supplement.
128-159

the C1 Controls; they print as themselves, but the effect is mostly undefined.

160

the ISO Latin-1 no-break space is mapped to ’\ ’, the escaped space character.

173

the soft hyphen control character (prints as itself). groff never use this character for output (thus it is omitted in the table below); the input character 173 is mapped onto \%.

The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255), called the Latin-1 Supplement in Unicode, are printable characters that print as themselves. Although they can be specified directly with the keyboard on systems with a Latin-1 code page, it is better to use their named character equivalent; see next section.

Output Input Input PostScript Notes

name

code

name

¡

¡

161

exclamdown

inverted exclamation mark

¢

¢

162

cent

£

£

163

sterling

¤

¤

164

currency

¥

¥

165

yen

¦

¦

166

brokenbar

§

§

167

section

¨

¨

168

dieresis

©

©

169

copyright

ª

ª

170

ordfeminine

«

«

171

guillemotleft

¬

¬

172

logicalnot

®

®

174

registered

¯

¯

175

macron

°

°

176

degree

±

±

177

plusminus

²

²

178

twosuperior

³

³

179

threesuperior

´

´

180

acute

acute accent

µ

µ

181

mu

micro sign

182

paragraph

·

·

183

periodcentered

¸

¸

184

cedilla

¹

¹

185

onesuperior

º

º

186

ordmasculine

»

»

187

guillemotright

¼

¼

188

onequarter

½

½

189

onehalf

¾

¾

190

threequarters

¿

¿

191

questiondown

À

À

192

Agrave

Á

Á

193

Aacute

Â

Â

194

Acircumflex

Ã

Ã

195

Atilde

Ä

Ä

196

Adieresis

Å

Å

197

Aring

Æ

Æ

198

AE

Ç

Ç

199

Ccedilla

È

È

200

Egrave

É

É

201

Eacute

Ê

Ê

202

Ecircumflex

Ë

Ë

203

Edieresis

Ì

Ì

204

Igrave

Í

Í

205

Iacute

Î

Î

206

Icircumflex

Ï

Ï

207

Idieresis

Ð

Ð

208

Eth

Ñ

Ñ

209

Ntilde

Ò

Ò

210

Ograve

Ó

Ó

211

Oacute

Ô

Ô

212

Ocircumflex

Õ

Õ

213

Otilde

Ö

Ö

214

Odieresis

×

×

215

multiply

Ø

Ø

216

Oslash

Ù

Ù

217

Ugrave

Ú

Ú

218

Uacute

Û

Û

219

Ucircumflex

Ü

Ü

220

Udieresis

Ý

Ý

221

Yacute

Þ

Þ

222

Thorn

ß

ß

223

germandbls

à

à

224

agrave

á

á

225

aacute

â

â

226

acircumflex

ã

ã

227

atilde

ä

ä

228

adieresis

å

å

229

aring

æ

æ

230

ae

ç

ç

231

ccedilla

è

è

232

egrave

é

é

233

eacute

ê

ê

234

ecircumflex

ë

ë

235

edieresis

ì

ì

236

igrave

í

í

237

iacute

î

î

238

icircumflex

ï

ï

239

idieresis

ð

ð

240

eth

ñ

ñ

241

ntilde

ò

ò

242

ograve

ó

ó

243

oacute

ô

ô

244

ocircumflex

õ

õ

245

otilde

ö

ö

246

odieresis

÷

÷

247

divide

ø

ø

248

oslash

ù

ù

249

ugrave

ú

ú

250

uacute

û

û

251

ucircumflex

ü

ü

252

udieresis

ý

ý

253

yacute

þ

þ

254

thorn

ÿ

ÿ

255

ydieresis

Named Characters
The named character idiom is the standard way to specify special characters in roff systems. They can be embedded into the document text by using escape sequences. groff(7) describes how these escape sequences look. The character names can consist of quite arbitrary characters from the ASCII or Latin-1 code set, not only alphanumeric characters. Here some examples:

\c

named character having the name c, which consists of a single character (length 1).

\(ch

named character having the 2-character name ch.

\[char_name]

named character having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3, ...).

In groff, each 8bit input character can also referred to by the construct \n[charn] where n is the decimal code of the character, a number between 0 and 255 without leading zeros. They are mapped onto glyph entities using the .trin request. Moreover, new character names can be created by the .char request; see groff(7).

Output Input PostScript Notes

name

name

Ð

\[-D]

Eth

Icelandic uppercase eth

ð

\[Sd]

eth

Icelandic lowercase eth

Þ

\[TP]

Thorn

Icelandic uppercase thorn

þ

\[Tp]

thorn

Icelandic lowercase thorn

ß

\[ss]

germandbls

German sharp s

Ligatures

ff

\[ff]

ff

ff ligature

fi

\[fi]

fi

fi ligature

fl

\[fl]

fl

fl ligature

ffi

\[Fi]

ffi

ffi ligature

ffl

\[Fl]

ffl

ffl ligature

Æ

\[AE]

AE

æ

\[ae]

ae

Œ

\[OE]

OE

œ

\[oe]

oe

IJ

\[IJ]

IJ

Dutch IJ ligature

ij

\[ij]

ij

Dutch ij ligature

ı

\[.i]

dotlessi

i without a dot (Turkish)

ȷ

\[.j]

dotlessj

j without a dot

Accented Characters

Á

\['A]

Aacute

Ć

\['C]

Cacute

É

\['E]

Eacute

Í

\['I]

Iacute

Ó

\['O]

Oacute

Ú

\['U]

Uacute

Ý

\['Y]

Yacute

á

\['a]

aacute

ć

\['c]

cacute

é

\['e]

eacute

í

\['i]

iacute

ó

\['o]

oacute

ú

\['u]

uacute

ý

\['y]

yacute

Ä

\[:A]

Adieresis

A with umlaut

Ë

\[:E]

Edieresis

Ï

\[:I]

Idieresis

Ö

\[:O]

Odieresis

Ü

\[:U]

Udieresis

Ÿ

\[:Y]

Ydieresis

ä

\[:a]

adieresis

ë

\[:e]

edieresis

ï

\[:i]

idieresis

ö

\[:o]

odieresis

ü

\[:u]

udieresis

ÿ

\[:y]

ydieresis

Â

\[^A]

Acircumflex

Ê

\[^E]

Ecircumflex

Î

\[^I]

Icircumflex

Ô

\[^O]

Ocircumflex

Û

\[^U]

Ucircumflex

â

\[^a]

acircumflex

ê

\[^e]

ecircumflex

î

\[^i]

icircumflex

ô

\[^o]

ocircumflex

û

\[^u]

ucircumflex

À

\[`A]

Agrave

È

\[`E]

Egrave

Ì

\[`I]

Igrave

Ò

\[`O]

Ograve

Ù

\[`U]

Ugrave

à

\[`a]

agrave

è

\[`e]

egrave

ì

\[`i]

igrave

ò

\[`o]

ograve

ù

\[`u]

ugrave

Ã

\[~A]

Atilde

Ñ

\[~N]

Ntilde

Õ

\[~O]

Otilde

ã

\[~a]

atilde

ñ

\[~n]

ntilde

õ

\[~o]

otilde

Š

\[vS]

Scaron

š

\[vs]

scaron

Ž

\[vZ]

Zcaron

ž

\[vz]

zcaron

Ç

\[,C]

Ccedilla

ç

\[,c]

ccedilla

Ł

\[/L]

Lslash

Polish L with a slash

ł

\[/l]

lslash

Polish l with a slash

Ø

\[/O]

Oslash

Scandinavic slashed O

ø

\[/o]

oslash

Scandinavic slashed o

Å

\[oA]

Aring

å

\[oa]

aring

Accents

˝

\[a"]

hungarumlaut

Hungarian umlaut

¯

\[a-]

macron

macron or bar accent

˙

\[a.]

dotaccent

dot accent

^

\[a^]

circumflex

circumflex accent

´

\[aa]

acute

acute accent

`

\[ga]

grave

grave accent

˘

\[ab]

breve

breve accent

¸

\[ac]

cedilla

cedilla accent

¨

\[ad]

dieresis

umlaut or dieresis

ˇ

\[ah]

caron

háˇek accent

˚

\[ao]

ring

ring or circle accent

~

\[a~]

tilde

tilde accent

˛

\[ho]

ogonek

hook or ogonek accent

^

\[ha]

asciicircum

ASCII circumflex, hat, caret

~

\[ti]

asciitilde

ASCII tilde, large tilde

Quotes

\[Bq]

quotedblbase

low double comma quote

\[bq]

quotesinglbase

low single comma quote

\[lq]

quotedblleft

\[rq]

quotedblright

\[oq]

quoteleft

single open quote

\[cq]

quoteright

single closing quote (ASCII 39)

'

\[aq]

quotesingle

apostrophe quote

"

\[dq]

quotedbl

double quote (ASCII 34)

«

\[Fo]

guillemotleft

»

\[Fc]

guillemotright

\[fo]

guilsinglleft

\[fc]

guilsinglright

Punctuation

¡

\[r!]

exclamdown

¿

\[r?]

questiondown

\[em]

emdash

em dash

\[en]

endash

en dash

-

\[hy]

hyphen

Brackets

[

\[lB]

bracketleft

]

\[rB]

bracketright

{

\[lC]

braceleft

}

\[rC]

braceright

\[la]

angleleft

left angle bracket

\[ra]

angleright

right angle bracket

Arrows

\[<-]

arrowleft

\[->]

arrowright

\[<>]

arrowboth

horizontal double-headed arrow

\[da]

arrowdown

\[ua]

arrowup

\[va]

arrowupdn

vertical double-headed arrow

\[lA]

arrowdblleft

\[rA]

arrowdblright

\[hA]

arrowdblboth

horizontal double-headed double arrow

\[dA]

arrowdbldown

\[uA]

arrowdblup

\[vA]

vertical double-headed double arrow

\[an]

arrowhorizex

horizontal arrow extension

Lines

\[-h]

hbar

|

\[or]

bar

|

\[ba]

bar

\[br]

br

box rule with traditional troff metrics

_

\[ru]

ru

baseline rule

_

\[ul]

ul

underline with traditional troff metrics

\[bv]

bv

bar vertical

¦

\[bb]

brokenbar

/

\[sl]

slash

\

\[rs]

backslash

Text markers

\[ci]

circle

\[bu]

bullet

\[dd]

daggerdbl

double dagger sign

\[dg]

dagger

\[lz]

lozenge

\[sq]

square

\[ps]

paragraph

§

\[sc]

section

\[lh]

handleft

\[rh]

handright

@

\[at]

at

#

\[sh]

numbersign

\[CR]

carriagereturn

carriage return symbol

\[OK]

a19

check mark, tick

Legalize

©

\[co]

copyright

®

\[rg]

registered

\[tm]

trademark

Currency symbols

$

\[Do]

dollar

¢

\[ct]

cent

\[eu]

official Euro symbol

\[Eu]

Euro

font-specific Euro glyph variant

¥

\[Ye]

yen

£

\[Po]

sterling

British currency sign

¤

\[Cs]

currency

Scandinavian currency sign

ƒ

\[Fn]

florin

Dutch currency sign

Units

°

\[de]

degree

\[%0]

perthousand

per thousand, per mille sign

\[fm]

minute

footmark, prime

\[sd]

second

µ

\[mc]

mu

micro sign

ª

\[Of]

ordfeminine

º

\[Om]

ordmasculine

Logical Symbols

\[AN]

logicaland

\[OR]

logicalor

¬

\[no]

logicalnot

\[te]

existential

there exists, existential quantifier

\[fa]

universal

for all, universal quantifier

\[st]

suchthat

\[3d]

therefore

\[tf]

therefore

Mathematical Symbols

½

\[12]

onehalf

¼

\[14]

onequarter

¾

\[34]

threequarters

¹

\[S1]

onesuperior

²

\[S2]

twosuperior

³

\[S3]

threesuperior

+

\[pl]

plusmath

plus sign in special font

-

\-

minus

minus sign from current font

\[-+]

minusplus

±

\[+-]

plusminus

±

\[t+-]

plusminus

text variant of ’+-’

·

\[pc]

periodcentered

multiplication dot

\[md]

dotmath

×

\[mu]

multiply

×

\[tmu]

multiply

text variant of ’mu’

\[c*]

circlemultiply

multiply sign in a circle

\[c+]

circleplus

plus sign in a circle

÷

\[di]

divide

division sign

÷

\[tdi]

divide

text variant of ’di’

\[f/]

fraction

bar for fractions

\[**]

asteriskmath

\[<=]

lessequal

\[>=]

greaterequal

\[<<]

much less

\[>>]

much greater

\[!=]

notequal

=

\[eq]

equalmath

equals sign in special font

\[==]

equivalence

\[=~]

congruent

\[ap]

similar

\[~~]

approxequal

\[~=]

approxequal

\[pt]

proportional

\[es]

emptyset

\[mo]

element

\[nm]

notelement

\[nb]

notsubset

\[nc]

notpropersuperset

\[ne]

notequivalence

\[sb]

propersubset

\[sp]

propersuperset

\[ib]

reflexsubset

\[ip]

reflexsuperset

\[ca]

intersection

intersection, cap

\[cu]

union

union, cup

\[/_]

angle

\[pp]

perpendicular

\[is]

integral

\[gr]

gradient

\[sr]

radical

square root

\[rn]

overline

\[if]

infinity

\[Ah]

aleph

\[Im]

Ifraktur

Gothic I, imaginary

\[Re]

Rfraktur

Gothic R, real

\[wp]

weierstrass

Weierstrass p

\[pd]

partialdiff

partial differentiation sign

Greek characters

Α

\[*A]

Alpha

Β

\[*B]

Beta

Ξ

\[*C]

Xi

Δ

\[*D]

Delta

Ε

\[*E]

Epsilon

Φ

\[*F]

Phi

Γ

\[*G]

Gamma

Θ

\[*H]

Theta

Ι

\[*I]

Iota

Κ

\[*K]

Kappa

Λ

\[*L]

Lambda

Μ

\[*M]

Mu

Ν

\[*N]

Nu

Ο

\[*O]

Omicron

Π

\[*P]

Pi

Ψ

\[*Q]

Psi

Ρ

\[*R]

Rho

Σ

\[*S]

Sigma

Τ

\[*T]

Tau

Υ

\[*U]

Upsilon

Ω

\[*W]

Omega

Χ

\[*X]

Chi

Η

\[*Y]

Eta

Ζ

\[*Z]

Zeta

α

\[*a]

alpha

β

\[*b]

beta

ξ

\[*c]

xi

δ

\[*d]

delta

ε

\[*e]

epsilon

ϕ

\[*f]

phi

φ

\[+f]

phi1

variant phi

γ

\[*g]

gamma

θ

\[*h]

theta

ϑ

\[+h]

theta1

variant theta

ι

\[*i]

iota

κ

\[*k]

kappa

λ

\[*l]

lambda

μ

\[*m]

mu

ν

\[*n]

nu

ο

\[*o]

omicron

π

\[*p]

pi

ϖ

\[+p]

omega1

variant pi, looking like omega

ψ

\[*q]

psi

ρ

\[*r]

rho

σ

\[*s]

sigma

τ

\[*t]

tau

υ

\[*u]

upsilon

ω

\[*w]

omega

χ

\[*x]

chi

η

\[*y]

eta

ζ

\[*z]

zeta

ς

\[ts]

sigma1

terminal sigma

Card symbols

\[CL]

club

club suit

\[SP]

spade

spade suit

\[HE]

heart

heart suit

\[DI]

diamond

diamond suit

AUTHOR

Copyright © 1989-2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Documentation License) version 1.1 or later. You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU copyleft site.

This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution. It was written by James Clark with additions by Werner Lemberg and Bernd Warken.

SEE ALSO

groff(1)

the GNU roff formatter.

groff(7)

a short reference of the groff formatting language.

An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J. Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

The Unicode Standard