There are several useful utilities provided in the email.utils module:
('', '')is returned.
(realname, email_address)and returns the string value suitable for a To: or Cc: header. If the first element of pair is false, then the second element is returned unmodified.
parseaddr(). fieldvalues is a sequence of header field values as might be returned by Message.get_all(). Here's a simple example that gets all the recipients of a message:
from email.utils import getaddresses tos = msg.get_all('to', ) ccs = msg.get_all('cc', ) resent_tos = msg.get_all('resent-to', ) resent_ccs = msg.get_all('resent-cc', ) all_recipients = getaddresses(tos + ccs + resent_tos + resent_ccs)
"Mon, 20 Nov 1995 19:12:08 -0500". If it succeeds in parsing the date, parsedate() returns a 9-tuple that can be passed directly to time.mktime(); otherwise
Nonewill be returned. Note that fields 6, 7, and 8 of the result tuple are not usable.
Noneor a 10-tuple; the first 9 elements make up a tuple that can be passed directly to time.mktime(), and the tenth is the offset of the date's timezone from UTC (which is the official term for Greenwich Mean Time)7.3. If the input string has no timezone, the last element of the tuple returned is
None. Note that fields 6, 7, and 8 of the result tuple are not usable.
None, assume local time. Minor deficiency: mktime_tz() interprets the first 8 elements of tuple as a local time and then compensates for the timezone difference. This may yield a slight error around changes in daylight savings time, though not worth worrying about for common use.
|[timeval[, localtime][, usegmt]])|
Fri, 09 Nov 2001 01:08:47 -0000
Optional timeval if given is a floating point time value as accepted by time.gmtime() and time.localtime(), otherwise the current time is used.
Optional localtime is a flag that when
timeval, and returns a date relative to the local timezone
instead of UTC, properly taking daylight savings time into account.
The default is
False meaning UTC is used.
Optional usegmt is a flag that when
True, outputs a
date string with the timezone as an ascii string
than a numeric
-0000. This is needed for some protocols (such
as HTTP). This only applies when localtime is
New in version 2.4.
|s[, charset[, language]])|
|value[, errors[, fallback_charset]])|
replace. Optional fallback_charset specifies the character set to use if the one in the RFC 2231 header is not known by Python; it defaults to
For convenience, if the value passed to collapse_rfc2231_value() is not a tuple, it should be a string and it is returned unquoted.
Changed in version 2.4: The dump_address_pair() function has been removed; use formataddr() instead.
Changed in version 2.4: The decode() function has been removed; use the Header.decode_header() method instead.
Changed in version 2.4: The encode() function has been removed; use the Header.encode() method instead.
time.timezonevariable for the same timezone; the latter variable follows the POSIX standard while this module follows RFC 2822.